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1. Rehydrating with sports drinks 1. 拿运动饮料解渴

If marketing hype is to be believed, we should be drinking sports drinks before, during and after workouts, but these are often actually full of sugar and far from healthy. The average gym-goer certainly doesn’t need them. 如果我们相信广告炒作的话,在运动的前中后期我们都应饮用运动饮料。但事实是,运动饮料含糖量普遍过高,不利于健康。普通的健身爱好者当然不需要它们。

“Many sports drinks contain as much as two-thirds the sugar of fizzy drinks,” Lambert told The Independent, adding that water, in addition to a good pre- and post-workout meal, will hydrate you perfectly 兰贝特告诉《独立报》:“许多运动饮料的含糖量很高,约为碳酸饮料的三分之二。”饮水,再加之健身前后的良好饮食就足够帮你补充水分了。

To calculate how much water (in litres) you need over the course of a day, multiply your weight in kilograms by 0.03. So if you weigh 60kg, you should drink around two litres a day. 你可以将体重(公斤)乘以0.03,所得的数字就是你一天中所需的水分(升)。例如,如果你体重为60公斤的话,一天中你就需要摄入大约两升的水。

“Dehydration is a key contributor to post-workout fatigue so after exercise,” Lambert says. “Check the color of your urine to see if you need to hydrate further. If it’s darker than apple juice, you definitely do.” 兰贝特说:“脱水是导致健身后疲劳的关键因素,可以通过检查尿液的颜色来查看自己是否需要进一步补充水分。如果尿液的颜色比苹果汁还要深的话,这就说明你需要立马补充水分。

2. Taking supplements for nutrients 2.用营养补充剂代替正常饮食

Although sometimes important for people with specific medical conditions, supplements should never replace real food. 虽然对于有特殊医疗需要的人们来说,营养补充剂是不可或缺的,但绝对不能代替正常饮食。

“One of the most common post-workout mistakes people make is to believe that a synthetically produced vitamin is the same as a nutrient found in real food,” Lambert says. 兰贝特说:“几大常见健身后误区之一就是相信复合维生素所含的营养与真正食物所含的一致。”

“All too many people believe multivitamins can make up for an unhealthy diet and justify an unhealthy meal post-workout. Supplements, no matter how effective, can never replace a healthy lifestyle with real food, exercise and good sleep.” “有太多的人认为多种维生素能弥补不健康饮食习惯带来的伤害,并借此为健身后不健康的饮食做借口。但无论营养补充剂多么的有效、能给你带来多少营养,都不能代替真正的饮食、锻炼和良好睡眠的健康生活方式。”

3. Choosing low-fat or diet foods 3. 只吃低脂或减肥食品

Although for years, low-fat foods were considered the key to losing weight, it’s now been realised that not only is fat essential for keeping you full, low-fat alternatives are often laden with sugar to improve their taste. 尽管多年来,人们普遍认为低脂食品是减肥的关键。但现如今,人们也逐渐认识到对于维持饱腹感来说,脂肪是必不可少的一部分。并且为了改善低脂食品的口感,里面往往含有糖分。

“Rather than keep you full, low-fat products are likely to make you hungrier, so you end up eating even more,” Lambert explains. “Instead of low-fat or ‘diet’ foods on the go, try and opt for some fresh fruit instead.” 兰贝特解释道:“低脂食品不会让你维持饱腹感,它只会让你更饿,所以你最终会吃的更多。你应该多吃些新鲜水果,而不是低脂或者‘减肥’食品。”

4. Overestimating how many calories you’ve burned 4.高估卡路里消耗

Many people undo all the hard work they’ve put in in the gym by having a huge, unhealthy meal afterwards. Exercising does not magically supercharge your metabolism. 许多人喜欢在健身后吃一顿不健康的大餐,这会使他们在健身房付出的努力瞬间付诸东流。运动并不会神奇地加快你的新陈代谢速度。

“Research regularly demonstrates that both normal and overweight people tend to overestimate the number of calories they burn during exercise,” Lambert says. “However, exercise is still crucial for overall health and can help you lose weight. It’s just not as effective at burning calories as some people think.” 兰贝特说:“很多研究表明,正常体重与超重的人往往高估自己在运动中消耗的卡路里。但运动对人体的整体健康还是至关重要的,也有利于减肥。只不过消耗的卡路里没有人们以为的那么多罢了。”

If you’re trying to lose weight, you need to create a calorie deficit by burning more than you consume, but this varies from person to person. Even if you’re eating healthy foods, consuming too much will prevent you losing weight, so Lambert says it’s key to watch your portion size. 如果想减肥,你消耗的卡路里要大于摄入的卡路里,以此来实现消耗卡路里,但具体情况还是要因人而异。兰贝特表示,关键是要根据摄入的分量,即使你吃的是健康的食物,摄入太多也不利于减肥。

Following an extremely low-calorie diet isn’t wise either, as this can slow down your metabolism and lead to muscle loss. 当然,只吃极低卡路里的食物也是不明智的,因为这将减缓你的新陈代谢速度并导致肌肉损耗。

5. Obsessing over the number on the scale 5.过度关注体重

Any fitness expert will tell you that when trying to lose weight, you should step off the scales and assess your progress using a measuring tape - as muscle weighs more than fat, you should focus on your changing body shape. 每一位健身专家都会告诉你,当你减肥的时候,应当从体重秤上走下来,用卷尺来评估健身的成效。因为肌肉是比脂肪重的,所以你应当多关注身形的变化。

Lambert points out that your weight can fluctuate by as much as two kilograms over the course of the day, depending on how much food and liquid you’ve consumed. And for women, hormonal variations can lead to water retention too, which affects the number on the scale. 兰贝特指出,根据食物与液体的摄入量的不同,一天内人体体重的变化幅度最多可至两公斤。并且对于女性来说,荷尔蒙的变化也会导致水肿,这会让秤上的你显得更胖。

6. Not eating enough protein 6.摄入蛋白质不足

When working out, you’re essentially breaking down your muscles, so it’s crucial to consume protein afterwards to rebuild them. Studies have shown that eating protein can help increase muscle mass and strength - it keeps you feeling full too. 当你在健身时,肌肉基本上处在被分解状态,所以在运动后摄入蛋白质对其复原是十分重要的。研究表明,摄入蛋白质有助于增长肌肉以及提高力量,同样也使你维持饱腹感。

“If you’re physically active, lifting weights, or trying to gain muscle and strength, then you need to make sure that you’re getting enough protein,” Lambert says. 兰贝特说道:“如果你正在进行体力活动、举重或者正想增加肌肉以及提高力量,你需要确保自身能摄入足够多的蛋白质。”

She advises being cautious of protein shakes and bars though, as often they may have necessary added ingredients and artificial sweeteners which won’t nourish your body: 同样,兰贝特也提醒我们要警惕蛋白奶昔与蛋白棒。因为一般它们会含有必要的添加剂以及人工甜味剂,而这些成分丝毫没有营养价值。

“Sometimes they can be a convenient way to refuel on the go but you have to be savvy with reading the nutrition label and know what to look out for.” “有时蛋白奶昔和蛋白棒是补充蛋白质的简便方法,但你必须读懂它们的营养标签并明白该注意些什么。”

7. Skipping a meal 7. 不吃饭

Current science suggests there’s an anabolic window post-workout where eating will ensure your body reaps the best rewards from your exercise - the jury is still out as to how long this window lasts though. 现代科学表明,人们在健身后会产生“代谢窗口期”,在这时候吃饭会确保身体能取得最大锻炼成效,但窗口期能持续多长时间,仍有待研究。

But Lambert says skipping a post-workout meal would be a mistake, and she advises eating within 45 minutes of finishing exercising. 但兰贝特表示健身后不吃饭是错误的行为,她建议人们应在锻炼结束后的45分钟内进食。



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